Ok peeps….carbs, well nothing really new here basically what we have all been doing same monomers, bonding and levels of bonding the only thin new here for me and a lil hard was epimer mutarotaion, boat and chair formation, but all in all a good topic and understandable.
Carbohydrates composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen in the ratios Cn(H2O)n. Carbs play a very important role in out daily lives by most importantly functioning as our foremost energy source and in other roles as structural, storage and also as precursor molecules.
Energy Source– Respiration we burn simple carbohydrates…..glucose…. to get energy , we can metabolize monosaccharide ( the basic unit of carbs), disaccharides, polysaccharides(at decreasing metabolism rates)
Glucose + Oxygen —-> Carbon Dioxide + Water + Energy (respiration equ’n)
So carbs we eat em everyday….they are good and bad for us depending on our intake, cause they supply us with energy for daily activites also they fuction as storge, structural molecule and many others.
Monosaccharides- Glucose, Fructose
Disacchardies- Sucrose, Maltose and Lactose
Polysaccaharides- Starch, Glycogen and Cellulose.
All these except the single unit monosaccharides form by condensation reaction i.e removal of H2O and form a Glycosidic bond.The type of Glycosidic bond depends on the monomers.
But one of the new encounters for me was the Epimers, those are carbohydrates that differ only by configuration around one Carbon
e.g D-glucose and D-mannose and D-galactose
Anomers, these are special types of epimers, Lets take alha and beta glucose as examples
The hydroxyl groups on the hemiacetal of the glucose are in different positions in alpha glucose it’s below the plane and beta glucose it above the plane. Thus anomers are just sterioisomers that differ in configuration on the hemiacetal or hemiketal carbon, this is called the anomeric carbon.
2^n= no. of steriocenters in a sugar. (n=no. of chiral centers present)
Mutarotation is the change in the optical rotation that occurs by epimerization (that is the change in the equilibrium between two epimers, when the corresponding stereocenters interconvert). Thus occurs bet
Getting into the business…
Monosaccharides are simple monomers, they are classed based on the number of carbons present eg three C=trioses, then they are further grouped into aldoses containing aldehyde functional group and ketoses having the ketone group
Disaccharides made up of two monomers formed by condensation reaction and can be reversed by hydrolysis. Glycosidic bond holds em together
Polysaccharides are just many monomer joined by glyosicdic bonds
Starch-Amylose and Amylopectin- alpha (1,4 ) and alpha (1,4 and 1,6)
Cellulose- beta (1,4)
Glycogen-alpha (1,4) with more (1,6) linkages
~Song of the Day~
Wikipedia.org.a .”Mutarotation” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mutarotation